## Gravity
## Electrical effects of Gravity?Such questions are interesting. But
rather than speculate on simple points like that, it would be more
helpful to understand gravity on a more detailed level. Earlier on we
saw how magnetism between two wires could be explained in terms of
neutral charge movements. The two wires were electrically neutral yet
were able to exert a net attraction or repulsion on each other. A
similar phenomenon occurs with static
electricity in which charged objects are able to attract
neutral objects, even when such objects cannot be “polarised” according
to the theory of how static electricity is said to operate. Therefore
one might wonder if similar motion-based electrical effects might be
responsible for gravity.
## Those quarks againIn the preceding chapters we looked at atomic nuclei as being active arrangements of moving quarks. It that model, positive up-quarks orbited negative down-quarks and embedded electrons. This motion was sufficient to explain the strong nuclear force and possibly the quantum mechanical nature of electron orbits. Could it have any effect beyond these things? Let’s look at a proton again. The above diagram shows the simplest of atoms – hydrogen. The situation is overall neutral with two up-quarks orbiting a down and an electron at a distance. The aim here is to determine the overall effect of this movement on similar atoms nearby. The situation is a bit complex and contains many particles so let’s simplify it a bit: Here we have a single up-quark orbiting a stationary down-quark. Obviously this arrangement is not the same but since the up-quarks have the same motion we can study the effects from just one of them. As for the electron, it is moving relatively slowly compared to the quarks so we can treat it as being basically stationary like the down-quark. What we’ve effectively done is combine the up-quarks together and combine the electron into the down-quark. We’ll start by looking at what effect this will have on a positive charge. Above we see a positive charge
sitting in the same orbit plane as the up-quark. We’ll look at the
force from four points in the orbit: left, right, top and bottom and
labelled 1,2,3,4 respectively. As the up-quark moves toward the
positive charge (point 3) it exerts an increased force, and as it moves
away (point 4), force decreases. As it moves up and down (points 1 and
2) its force decreases slightly. Doing the math shows the overall
contribution from these points yields a net increase in repulsion. If
we wish to know the contribution from all possible points in the orbit,
this requires integrating around the circle. Doing this shows, as might
be expected, that the overall force has increased and the orbiting
up-quark pushes the positive charge away. On the left is a positive up-quark
closely orbiting a negative down-quark. On the right is a target
particle sitting at a distance of one unit. The up-quark is orbiting in
the same plane as the target. All charges have a unit charge of one,
such that the force between two particles at a unit distance will be
one force unit. We will also say the up-quark is moving at 10 percent
of light-speed, i.e. 0.1
## Changing orientationsOkay, so we know what happens when the target particle lies in the same plane as the orbiting up-quark. What would happen if we turned that orbit plane around? See diagram: Here the orbit plane is at right
angles to the target particle. Here are the results:
## Attraction between two circular orbitsThe above calculations show the net force exerted on a stationary target particle by an up-quark moving in different circular orbits. Let’s now extend that to look at the force between two such orbiting quarks. Start with this situation: Here we see our two ‘protons’ with
their up-quarks in the same orbit plane. The phase-angle of the quarks
are random and not aligned between the two protons. We wish to know the
net force on the proton on the right. The net force will be the sum of
four force component quark combinations: up2 & up1; up2
& down1; down2 & up1; and down2 & down1 (where
1 and 2 respectively represent the left and right protons). This setup yields a net force of
-0.05930 (attractive)
## Going the full sphereThe above situations show how the
net force between two protons can vary greatly, depending on
orientation. What this tells us is that it’s possible for protons to
reduce the amount of static repulsion that would be predicted by
Coulomb’s law. This means that if we add electrons to neutralise the
situation, i.e. by making atoms, there can be a net attraction between
such atoms, provided that they are suitably aligned. On the left is our up-quark orbiting
the down-quark in random directions over the surface of a sphere, in
which the pink sphere represents all possible positions of the red
up-quark. On the right is a static target particle. We will consider
the situations where the target is positive and negative. Here both the source and target
consist of up-quarks orbiting a down-quark. The orbits are circular,
however, since we must consider all possible random orientations, we
treat them as ‘spherical’. Determining the net force in this situation
requires integrating all possible positions over one sphere versus all
possible positions over the other. It’s a four-way integration, and
very complex. But here is the result:
## Cutting a coneRather than quit at this point it is
useful to investigate what might have gone wrong or if anything has
been overlooked. The net force we arrived at was a combination of many
factors. It consists of the interaction between different charged
particles moving in different directions. The greatest degree of
repulsion occurs when the positive quarks move directly toward each
other. Therefore it would be interesting to know how much of this
‘direct toward’ motion would need to be removed from the equation to
bring the net force down to zero and into the negative (attractive)
domain. And then saying the up-quarks are
restricted to orbiting within the remaining region. [Note: this diagram
shows a mid cross-section of the cones – the cones don’t cut across the
entire sphere as drawn]
## Synchronization is the key?There may be an answer however. When
calculating the above net forces the assumption was made that quark
movement is random, in that the quark orbits are aligned in random
directions and have no relationship with each other. Well the overall
alignment may well be random from one proton to the next, but the
precise movement of the orbits is another matter. The above diagram shows an
unsynchronized (random phase) situation versus a synchronized (zero
phase) situation. Here the red up-quark has been split into two to
represent the opposing quarks on the same proton and each up-quark is
given a charge of +1/2 (the down-quark still has -1).
## Cancelling the radiationThere is another reason to believe
why the phase of two proton’s up-quarks should synchronize and why
their phase should be zero. Here two electrons are moving in
sinusoidal motion within parallel antennas, shown as black vertical
lines. The voltage signals fed into each antenna are 180 degrees out of
phase, i.e. they are mirror images of other. Now if the antennas were
sitting right next to each other the two signals they generate (shown
in blue) would completely cancel and we would detect nothing to the
right of them. But since there is a distance between them they don’t
completely cancel and we are left with a net signal as shown in red.
## Anti-gravity at a distance
There is a problem however with the above idea that synchronisation
must occur between all orbiting quarks. Namely that it would
be not be possible for synchronising to occur over unlimited
distances. For example it would be very difficult for distant
galaxies to synchronise with each other because their fields would be
very weak.
## No Light-bending or SingularitiesIf the idea that gravity is the
result of an interaction between electrical charges (rather than
masses) is true, it has a number of important implications.
Firstly it means that gravity won’t bend light. We know that
laser beams and radio waves pass though each other without
deflection. Therefore a light beam should not be disturbed by
the electrical fields of gravity either. This means that any
such observed bending is more likely the result of refraction as
described in general
relativity experiments.
## Reversing the chargesBefore concluding it is interesting to note what happens if we were to totally reverse the charges on one of the protons. That is, make the down-quark positive and the up-quark negative as shown below: Integrating over two full spheres,
we can calculate the net force between them to be +0.0004595 (repulsive)
## ConclusionIt’s possible that the phenomenon we
know of as gravity may be due to the interaction between of moving
subatomic particles within nucleons. Particularly the rapid orbit of
up-quarks and the relatively slower down-quarks and electrons.
[1] Research from astronomers such as Halton Arp indicates much of this redshift may be due to factors unrelated to velocity – see http://www.electric-cosmos.org/arp.htm As a result it is difficult to know of the net movement of the universe. In the later chapter on cosmology I will argue that the net movement is outwards, although at a much slower rate than presently believed. |

Copyright © 2010
Bernard Burchell, all rights reserved.